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Dạng bài Đọc hiểu lớp 12

Bài 11:

Read the following postage and mark the letter A, R, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 47 to 56.

     Each advance in microscopic technique has provided scientists with new perspectives on the function of living organisms and the nature of matter itself. The invention of the visible-light microscope late in the sixteenth century introduced a previously unknown realm of single-celled plants and animals. in the twentieth century, electron microscopes have provided direct views of viruses and minuscule surface structures. Now another type of microscope, one that utilizes x-rays rather than light or electrons, offers a different way of examining tiny details, it should extend human perception still farther into the natural world.

     The dream of building an x-ray microscope dates to 1895, its development, however, was virtually halted in the 1940's because the development of the electron microscope was progressing rapidly. During the 1940's electron microscopes routinely achieved resolution better than that possible with a visible-light microscope, while the performance of x-ray microscopes resisted improvement. In recent years, however. interest in x-ray micruswpes has revived, largely because of advances such as the development of new sources of x-ray illumination. As a result, the brightness available today is millions of times that of x-ray tubes, which, for most of the century, were the only available sources of soft x-rays.

     The new x-ray microscopes considerably improve on the resolution provided by optical microscopes. They can also be used to map the distribution of certain chemical elements. Some can form pictures in extremely short times; others hold the promise of special capabilities such as three- dimensional imaging. Unlike conventional electron microscopy, x-ray microscopy enables specimens to be kept in air and in water, which means that biological samples can he studied under conditions similar to their natural state. The illumination used, so-called soft x-rays in the wavelength range of twenty to forty angstroms (an angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter), is also sufficiently penetrating to image intact biological cells in many cases. Because of the wavelength of the x-rays used, soft x-ray microscopes will never match the highest resolution possible with electron microscopes. Rather, their special properties will make possible investigations that will complement those performed with light- and electron-based instruments. 

Câu hỏi số 1:

Based on the information in the passage, what can be inferred about x-ray microscopes in the future? 

Câu hỏi số 2:

The word "those" in line 24 refers to 

Câu hỏi số 3:

According to the passage, the invention of the visible-light microscope allowed scientists to

Câu hỏi số 4:

The word "enables' in line 18 is closest in meaning to

Câu hỏi số 5:

The word "it" in line 6 refers to

Câu hỏi số 6:

Why did it take so long to develop the x-ray microscope?

Câu hỏi số 7:

What does the passage mainly discuss? 

Câu hỏi số 8:

 Why does the author mention the visible - light microscope in the first paragraph?

Câu hỏi số 9:

The word "minuscule" in line 4 is closest in meaning to

Câu hỏi số 10:

The word "Rather" in line 23 is closest in meaning to

Bài 12:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

    Increasing numbers of parents in the U.S. are choosing to teach their children at home. In fact, the U.S. Department of Education has estimated that in 1999, about 850,000 children were being home- schooled. Some educational experts say that the real number is double this estimate, and the ranks of home-schooled children seem to be growing at the average rate of about eleven percent every year.

    At one time, there was a theory accounting for home-schooling: it was traditionally used for students who could not attend school because of behavioral or learning difficulties. Today, however, more parents are taking on the responsibility of educating their own children at home due to their dissatisfaction with the educational system. Many parents are unhappy about class size, as well as problems inside the classroom. Teacher shortages and lack of funding mean that, in many schools, one teacher is responsible for thirty or forty students. The children are, therefore, deprived of the attention they need. Escalating classroom violence has also motivated some parents to remove their children from school.

    Although there have been a lot of arguments for and against it, home-schooling in the U.S. has become a multi-million dollar industry, and it is growing bigger and bigger. There are now plenty of websites, support groups, and conventions that help parents protect their rights and enable them to learn more about educating their children. Though once it was the only choice for troubled children, home- schooling today is an accepted alternative to an educational system that many believe is failing.

Câu hỏi số 1:

The word "arguments " in the third paragraph can be best replaced by "_______"

Câu hỏi số 2:

According to some experts, the exact number of home-schooled children then must be _______.

Câu hỏi số 3:

The attitude of the author towards home-schooling can be best described as _______.

Câu hỏi số 4:

More parents teach their children because they completely _______ the current educational system.

Câu hỏi số 5:

Many parents stop their children from going to school because it is now too _______ for them.

Câu hỏi số 6:

The number of parents who want to teach their own children in the U.S. is _______. 

Câu hỏi số 7:

This estimated number was presented by _______. 

Câu hỏi số 8:

The past participle "home-schooled " in the first paragraph is best equivalent to "_______at home".

Câu hỏi số 9:

The closest synonym of the participle phrase "accounting for " in the second paragraph is "_______".

Câu hỏi số 10:

The noun "dissatisfaction " in the second paragraph is best equivalent to "_______".

Bài 13:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

     In the world today, particular in the two most industrialized areas, North America and Europe, recycling is the big news. People are talking about it, practicing it, and discovering new ways to be sensitive to the environment. Recycling means finding ways to use products a second time. The motto of the recycling movement is "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle".

     The first step is to reduce garbage. In stores, a shopper has to buy products in blister packs, boxes and expensive plastic wrappings. A hamburger from a fast food restaurant comes in lots of packaging: usually paper, a box and a bag. All that packaging is wasted resources. People should try to buy things that are wrapped simply, and to reuse cups and utensils. Another way to reduce waste is to buy high- quality products. When low-quality appliances break, many customers throw them away and buy new ones - a loss of more resources and more energy. For example, if a customer buys a high-quality appliance that can be easily repaired, the manufacturer receives an important message. In the same way, if a customer chooses a product with less packaging, that customer sends an important message to the manufacturers. To reduce garbage, the throw-away must stop.

     The second step is to reuse. It is better to buy juices and soft drinks in returnable bottles. After customers empty the bottles, they return them to the stores. The manufacturers of the drinks collect bottles, wash them, and then fill them again. The energy that is necessary to make new bottles is saved. In some parts of the world, returning bottles for money is a common practice. In those places, the garbage dumps have relatively little glass and plastic from throw-away bottles.

     The third step being environmentally sensitive is to recycle. Spent motor oil can be cleaned and used again. Aluminum cans are expensive to make. It takes the same amount of energy to make one aluminum can as it does to run a color TV set for three hours. When people collect and recycle aluminum (for new cans), they help save one of the world's precious resources.

Câu hỏi số 1:

What does the word "sensitive " mean? 

Câu hỏi số 2:

It is a waste when customers buy low-quality products because _______. 

Câu hỏi số 3:

People can do the following to reduce waste EXCEPT _______. 

Câu hỏi số 4:

What best describe the process of reuse? 

Câu hỏi số 5:

The word "motto " is closest in meaning to _______. 

Câu hỏi số 6:

What are the two things mentioned as examples of recycling? 

Câu hỏi số 7:

The word "practice " is closest in meaning to _______.

Câu hỏi số 8:

Which area is considered one of the most industrialized? 

Câu hỏi số 9:

Garbage dumps in some areas have relatively little glass and plastic because _______. 

Câu hỏi số 10:

What is the topic of the passage? 

Bài 14:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 67- 75

    Butterflies are among the most extensively studied insects—an estimated 90 percent of the world's species have scientific names. As a consequence, they are perhaps the best group of insects for examining patterns of terrestrial biotic diversity and distribution. Butterflies also have a favorable image with the general public. Hence, they are an excellent group for communicating information on science and conservation issues such as diversity.

    Perhaps the aspect of butterfly diversity that has received the most attention over the past century is the striking difference in species richness between tropical and temperate regions.

    For example, in 1875 one biologist pointed out the diversity of butterflies in the Amazon when he mentioned that about 700 species were found within an hour's walk, whereas the total number found on the British islands did not exceed 66, and the whole of Europe supported only 321. This early comparison of tropical and temperate butterfly richness has been well confirmed.

   A general theory of diversity would have to predict not only this difference between temperate and tropical zones, but also patterns within each region, and how these patterns vary among different animal and plant groups. However, for butterflies, variation of species richness within temperate or tropical regions, rather man between them, is poorly understood. Indeed, comparisons of numbers of species among the Amazon basin, tropical Asia, and Africa are still mostly "personal communication" citations, even for vertebrates, In other words, unlike comparison between temperate and tropical areas, these patterns are still in the documentation phase.

   In documenting geographical variation in butterfly diversity, some arbitrary, practical decisions are made. Diversity, number of species, and species richness are used synonymously; little is known about the evenness of butterfly distribution. The New World butterflies make up the preponderance of examples because they are the most familiar species. It is hoped that by focusing on them, the errors generated by imperfect and incomplete taxonomy will be minimized. 

Câu hỏi số 1:

Butterflies are a good example for communicating information about conservation issues because they……….........

Câu hỏi số 2:

The word "consequence" in line 2 is closest in meaning to…………….

Câu hỏi số 3:

The word "striking" in line 7 is closest in meaning to………………

Câu hỏi số 4:

Which aspect of butterflies does the passage mainly discuss?

Câu hỏi số 5:

All of the followings are mentioned as being important parts of a general theory of diversity EXCEPT…………….

Câu hỏi số 6:

The word “exceed” in line 10 is closest in meaning to……………….

Câu hỏi số 7:

The word "generated" in line 24 is closest in meaning to……….

Câu hỏi số 8:

The author mentions tropical Asia in lines 16-17 as an example of a location where……..........

Bài 15:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 1 to 10

   A number of factors related to the voice reveal the personality of the speaker.

   The first is the broad area of communication, which includes imparting information by use of language, communicating with a group or an individual and specialized communication through performance. A person conveys thoughts and ideas through choice of words, by a tone of voice that is pleasant or unpleasant, gentle or harsh, by the rhythm that is inherent within the language itself, and by speech rhythms that are flowing and regular or uneven and hesitant, and finally, by the pitch and melody of the utterance. When speaking before a group, a person's tone may indicate uncertainty or fright, confidence or calm. At interpersonal levels, the tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen, or may belie them. Here the participant’s tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathy or antipathy, lack of concern or interest, fatigue, anxiety, enthusiasm or excitement, all of which are .usually discernible by the acute listener. Public performance is a manner of communication that is highly specialized with its own techniques for obtaining effects by voice and /or gesture. The motivation derived from the text, and in the case of singing, the music, in combination with the performer's skills, personality, and ability to create empathy will determine the success of artistic, political, or pedagogic communication.

    Second, the voice gives psychological clues to a person's self-image, perception of others, and emotional health. Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confident, pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few personality traits. Also the sound may give a clue to the facade or mask of that person, for example, a shy person hiding behind an overconfident front. How a speaker perceives the listener's receptiveness, interest, or sympathy in any given conversation can drastically alter the tone of presentation, by encouraging or discouraging the speaker. Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by free and melodic sounds of the happy, by constricted and harsh sound of the angry, and by dull and lethargic qualities of the depressed.

Câu hỏi số 1:

What does the passage mainly discuss?

Câu hỏi số 2:

What does the author mean by staring that, "At interpersonal levels, tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen" in lines 8- 9?

Câu hỏi số 3:

The word "Here" in line 9 refers to……………

Câu hỏi số 4:

The word "derived" in line 13 is closest in meaning to………

Câu hỏi số 5:

Why does the author mention "artistic, political, or pedagogic communication" in line 14-15?

Câu hỏi số 6:

According to the passage, an exuberant tone of voice may be an indication of a person's………

Câu hỏi số 7:

According to the passage, an overconfident front may hide…………

Câu hỏi số 8:

The word "drastically" in line 21 is closest in meaning to……………

Câu hỏi số 9:

The word "evidenced" in line 22 is closest in meaning to……………

Câu hỏi số 10:

According to the passage, what does a constricted and harsh voice indicate?

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