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Dạng bài Đọc hiểu lớp 12

Bài 16:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 46 to 55.

Archimedes‘ Principle is a law of physics that states that when an object is totally or partially immersed in a fluid, it experiences an upthrust equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. The principle is most frequently applied to the behaviour of objects in water, and helps to explain floating and sinking, and why objects seem lighter in water. It also applies to balloons.

The key word in the principle is “upthrust”, which refers to the force acting upward to reduce the apparent weight of the object when it is under water. If, for example. a metal block with a volume of 100 cm is dipped in water, it displaces an equal volume of water, which has a weight of approximately 1 N (3.5 oz). The block therefore seems to weigh about 1 N less.

An object will float if its average density is less than that of water. If it is totally submerged, the weight of the water it displace (and hence the upthrust on it) is greater than its own weight, and it is forced upward and out of the water, until the weight of the water displaced by the submerged part is exactly equal to the weight of the floating object. Thus a block of wood with a density six tenths that of water will float with six tenths of its volume under water, since at that point the weight of fluid displaced is the same as the block’s own weight. If a dense material is made into a suitable shape, it will float because of Archimedes’ principle. A ship floats, whereas a block of iron of the same mass sinks.

It is also because of Archimedes’ principle that ships float lower in the water when they are heavily loaded (more water must be displaced to give the necessary upthrust). In addition, they cannot be so heavily loaded if they are to sail in fresh water as they can if they are to sail in the sea, since fresh water is less dense than sea water, and so more water must be displaced to give the necessary upthrust. This means the ship is lower in the water, which can be dangerous in rough weather.

From "Archimedes Principle". Microsoft Student 2008 [DVD]. Microsoft Corporation, 2007.

Câu hỏi số 1:

What happens when something is immersed in a fluid?

Câu hỏi số 2:

The word “volume” in the passage refers to ______

Câu hỏi số 3:

The word “displace” in the passage almost means_____

Câu hỏi số 4:

If an object’s average density is less than that of water, the object will_____

Câu hỏi số 5:

A block of wood with a density seven tenths that of water will_____

Câu hỏi số 6:

A ship floats, whereas a block of iron of the same mass sinks because the ship____

Câu hỏi số 7:

The phrase "six tenths" in the passage means

Câu hỏi số 8:

The word “upthrust” in the passage refers to the_____

Câu hỏi số 9:

Ships cannot be so heavily loaded if they want to sail in fresh water as they sail in the sea, because______

Câu hỏi số 10:

Archimedes’ Principle explains why______

Bài 17:

Read the following passage adapted from A. Briggs’ article on culture, Microsoft Student 2008, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Culture is a word in common use with complex meanings, and is derived, like the term broadcasting,from the treatment and care of the soil and of what grows on it. It is directly related to cultivation and the adjectives cultural and cultured are part of the same verbal complex. A person of culture has identifiable attributes, among them a knowledge of and interest in the arts, literature, and music. Yet the word culture -does not refer solely to such knowledge and interest nor, indeed, to education. At least from the 19th century onwards, under the influence of anthropologists and sociologists, the word culture has come to be used generally both in the singular and the plural (cultures) to refer to a whole way of life of people. including their customs, laws, conventions, and values.

Distinctions have consequently been drawn between primitive and advanced culture and cultures, between elite and popular culture, between popular and mass culture, and most recently between national and global cultures. Distinctions have been drawn too between culture and civilization; the latter is a word derived not, like culture or agriculture, from the soil, but from the city. The two words are sometimes treated as synonymous. Yet this is misleading. While civilization and barbarism are pitted against each other in what seems to be a perpetual behavioural pattern. the use of the word culture has been strongly influenced by conceptions of evolution in the 19th century and of development in the 20th century. Cultures evolve or develop. They are not static. They have twists and turns. Styles change. So do fashions. There are cultural processes. What, for example, the word cultured means has changed substantially since the study of classical (that is, Greek and Roman) literature, philosophy, and history ceased in the 20th century to be central to school and university education. No single alternative focus emerged, although with computers has come electronic culture, affecting kinds of study, and most recently digital culture. As cultures express themselves in new forms not everything gets better or more civilized.

The multiplicity of meanings attached to the word made and will make it difficult to define. There is no single, unproblematic definition, although many attempts have been made to establish one. The only non-problematic definitions go back to agricultural meaning (for example, cereal culture or strawberry culture) and medical meaning (for example, bacterial culture or penicillin culture). Since in anthropology and sociology we also acknowledge culture clashes, culture shock, and counter-culture, the range of reference is extremely wide.

Câu hỏi số 1:

According to the passage, the word culture_______

Câu hỏi số 2:

It is stated in paragraph 1 that a cultured person ____

Câu hỏi số 3:

The author remarks that culture and civilization are the two words that______

Câu hỏi số 4:

It can be inferred from the passage that since the 20th century______

Câu hỏi số 5:

The word “attributes” in paragraph 1 most likely means______

Câu hỏi số 6:

The word “static” in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by________

Câu hỏi số 7:

Which of the following is NOT stated in the passage?

Câu hỏi số 8:

It is difficult to give the definitions of the word culture EXCEPT for its_____

Câu hỏi số 9:

Which of the following is NOT true about the word culture?

Câu hỏi số 10:

The passage mainly discusses______

Bài 18:

Read the following passage adapted from Cultural Guide - OALD, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

The issue of equality for women in British society first attracted national attention in the early 20th century, when the suffragettes won for women the right to vote. In the 19605 feminism became the subject of intense debate when the women’s liberation movement encouraged women to reject their traditional supporting role and to demand equal status and equal rights with men in areas such as employment and pay.

Since then, the gender gap between the sexes has been reduced. The Equal Pay Act of 1970, for instance, made it illegal for women to be paid less than men for doing the same work, and in 1975 the Sex Discrimination Act aimed to prevent either sex having an unfair advantage when applying for jobs. In the same year the Equal Opportunities Commission was set up to help people claim their rights to equal treatment and to publish research and statistics to show where improvements in opportunities for women need to be made. Women now have much better employment opportunities, though they still tend to get less well-paid jobs than men, and very few are appointed to top jobs in industry.

In the US the movement that is often called the “first wave of feminism” began in the mid 1800s. Susan B. Anthony worked for the right to vote, Margaret Sanger wanted to provide women with the means of contraception so that they could decide whether or not to have children, and Elizabeth Blackwell, who had to fight for the chance to become a doctor, wanted women to have greater opportunities to study. Many feminists were interested in other social issues.

The second wave of feminism began in the 1960s. Women like Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem became associated with the fight to get equal rights and opportunities for women under the law. An important issue was the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which was intended to change the Constitution. Although the ERA was not passed, there was progress in other areas. It became illegal for employers, schools, clubs, etc, to discriminate against women. But women still find it hard to advance beyond a certain point in their careers, the so-called glass ceiling that prevents them from having high-level jobs. Many women also face the problem of the second shift, i.e the household chores

In the 1980s. feminism became less popular in the US and there was less interest in solving the remaining problems, such as the fact that most women still earn much less than men. Although there is still discrimination, the principle that it should not exist is widely accepted.

Câu hỏi số 1:

It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that in the 19th century,____

Câu hỏi số 2:

The phrase “gender gap” in paragraph 2 refers to______

Câu hỏi số 3:

Susan B. Anthony, Margaret Sanger, and Elizabeth Blackwell are mentioned as______

Câu hỏi số 4:

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)_____

Câu hỏi số 5:

 In the late 20th century, some information about feminism in Britain was issued by ____.

Câu hỏi số 6:

Which of the following is true according to the passage?

Câu hỏi số 7:

The phrase “glass ceiling” in paragraph 4 mostly means_______

Câu hỏi số 8:

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

Câu hỏi số 9:

It can be inferred from the passage that______

Câu hỏi số 10:

Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

Bài 19:

Read the following passage adapted from Pre-Essence Reading 1 by Rachel Lee, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

BODY LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

The body language people use often communicates more about their feelings than the words they are saying. We use body movements, hand gestures, facial expressions, and changes in our voice to communicate with each other. Although some body language is universal, many gestures are culturally specific and may mean different things in different countries.

If you want to give someone the nod in Bulgaria, you have to nod your head to say no and shake it to say yes - the exact opposite of what we do! In Belgium, pointing with your index finger or snapping your fingers at someone is very rude.

In France, you shouldn’t rest your feet on tables or chairs. Speaking to someone with your hands in your pockets will only make matters worse. In the Middle East, you should never show the soles of your feet or shoes to others as it will be seen as a grave insult. When eating, only use your right hand because they use their left hands when going to the bathroom.

In Bangladesh, the ‘thumbs-up" is a rude sign. In Myanmar, people greet each other by clapping, and in India, whistling in public is considered rude.

In Japan, you should not blow your nose in public, but you can burp at the end of a meal to show that you have enjoyed it. The ‘OK’ sign (thumb and index finger forming a circle) means ‘everything is good’ in the West, but in China it means nothing or zero. In Japan, it means money, and in the Middle East, it is a rude gesture.

Câu hỏi số 1:

It is mentioned in the passage that many gestures_______

Câu hỏi số 2:

People nod their head to say no in________

Câu hỏi số 3:

In the Middle East, people do not use their left hands for eating because they use their left hands______

Câu hỏi số 4:

Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

Câu hỏi số 5:

The word “others” in paragraph 3 refers to_______

Bài 20:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Will people still read books 100 years from now? A few years ago, many people would have said no. It seemed likely that computers and the internet would replace books. Now, however, most experts think that books are here to stay.

There are a number of reasons why computers will not replace books entirely. One reason is that books on paper are much cheaper than computers. And books do not need a power source. You can read a book for as long as you want and wherever you want. You never have to worry about losing power. Also, many people feel more comfortable reading words in a book than reading words on a computer screen because it is less tiring to the eyes.

Will books in the future be exactly the same as the books you can buy today? The answer to that question is no. In the future, you may only need to buy one book. With this one book, you will be able to read novels, plays. and newspapers. It will look like today’s books, but it will be electronic.

One of the people working on the book of the future is Professor Joseph Jacobson from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Professor Jacobson’s electronic book will have a small button on the side. When you press the button, words will instantly appear on the page. When you want to read a different story, you can push the button again and "a new story will quickly appear.

Câu hỏi số 1:

The phrase “are here to stay” in the first paragraph mostly means____

Câu hỏi số 2:

Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?

Câu hỏi số 3:

What will the book of the future look like?

Câu hỏi số 4:

The button on the side of the electronic book is used ______

Câu hỏi số 5:

What is the main topic of the passage?

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