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Dạng bài Đọc hiểu lớp 12

Bài 21:

Read the following passage, and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

What makes it rain ? Rain falls from clouds for the same reason anything falls to earth. The Earth’s gravity pulls it. But every cloud is made of water droplets or ice crystals. Why doesn’t rain or snow fall constantly from all clouds ? The droplets or ice crystals in clouds are exceedingly small. The effect of gravity on them is minute. Air currents move and lift droplets so that the net downward displacement is zero, even though the droplets are in constant motion .

Droplets and ice crystals behave somewhat like dust in the air made visible in a shaft of sunlight. To the casual observer, dust seems to act in a totally random fashion, moving about  chaotically without fixed direction. But in fact dust participles are much larger than water droplets and they finally fall. The cloud droplet of average size is only  1/2500  inch in diameter. It is so small that it would take sixteen hours to fall half a mile in perfectly still air, and it does not fall out of moving air at all. Only when the droplet grows to a diameter of 1/125 inch or larger can it fall from the cloud. The average  raindrop contains a million times as much water as a tiny cloud droplet. The growth of  a cloud droplet to a size large enough to fall out is the cause of rain and other forms of precipitation. This important growth process is coalescence”.

Câu hỏi số 1:

What is the main topic of the passage ?

Câu hỏi số 2:

Which of the following best replaces the word “minute” in paragraph 1?

Câu hỏi số 3:

What does “ in constant motion” in paragraph 1 ?

Câu hỏi số 4:

Why don’t ice crystals in clouds immediately fall to earth?

Câu hỏi số 5:

What are water droplets ?

Câu hỏi số 6:

What can be inferred about drops of water larger than 1/125 inch in diameter ?

Câu hỏi số 7:

In this passage, what does the term “coalescence “ refer to ?

Câu hỏi số 8:

What is the diameter of the average cloud droplet ?

Câu hỏi số 9:

What is an example of precipitation ?

Câu hỏi số 10:

Which of the following best paraphrases the extract : “ dust seems to act in a totally random fashion” ?  

Bài 22:

Read the following passage, and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions .

Some animal behaviorists argue that certain animals can remember past events, anticipate future ones, make plans and choices, and coordinate activities within a group. These scientists, however, are cautious about the extent to which animals can be credited with conscious processing.

Explanations of animal behavior that leave out any sort of consciousness at all and ascribe actions entirely to instinct leave many questions unanswered. One example of such unexplained behavior: Honeybees communicate the sources of nectar to one another by doing a dance in a figure-eight pattern. The orientation of the dance conveys the position of the food relative to the sun’s position in the sky, and the speed of the dance tells how far the food source is from the hive. Most researchers assume that the ability to perform and encode the dance is innate and shows no special intelligence. But in one study, when experimenters kept changing the site of the food source, each time moving the food 25 percent farther from the previous site, foraging honeybees began to anticipate where the food source would appear next. When the researchers arrived at the new location, they would find the bees circling the spot, waiting for their food. No one has yet explained how bees, whose brains weigh four ten-thousandths of an ounce, could have inferred the location of the new site.

Other behaviors that may indicate some cognition include tool use. Many animals, like the otter who uses a stone to crack mussel shells, are capable of using objects in the natural environment as rudimentary tools. One researcher has found that mother chimpanzees occasionally show their young how to use tools to open hard nuts. In one study, chimpanzees compared two pairs of food wells containing chocolate chips. One pair might contain, say, five chips and three chips, the other four chips and three chips. Allowed to choose which pair they wanted, the chimpanzees almost always chose the one with the higher total, showing some sort of summing ability. Other chimpanzees have learned to use numerals to label quantities of items and do simple sums.

Câu hỏi số 1:

What does the passage mainly discuss?

Câu hỏi số 2:

Which of the following is NOT discussed as an ability animals are thought to have?

Câu hỏi số 3:

What is the purpose of the honeybee at a site?

Câu hỏi số 4:

The word “yet” is closest in meaning to ___________.

Câu hỏi số 5:

What did researchers discover in the study of honeybees discussed in paragraph 2?  

Câu hỏi số 6:

It can be inferred from the passage that brain size is assumed to ___________.

Câu hỏi số 7:

Why are otters and mussel shells included in the discussion in paragraph 3?

Câu hỏi số 8:

The word “rudimentary” in meaning to ___________.

Câu hỏi số 9:

The phrase “the one” refers to the ____________.

Câu hỏi số 10:

Scientists concluded from the experiment with chimpanzees and chocolate chips that chimpanzees __________.  

Bài 23:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 56 to 65.

  Perhaps the most striking quality of satiric literature is its freshness and its originality of perspective. Satire itself, however, rarely offers original ideas. Instead, it presents the familiar in a new form. Satirists do not offer the world new philosophies. What they do is look at familiar conditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish, harmful, or affected. Satire jars us out of complacence into a pleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioningly accept are false.

  Don Quixote makes chivalry seem absurd; Brave New World ridicules the pretensions of science; A Modest Proposal dramatizes starvation by advocating cannibalism. None of these ideas is original. Chivalry was suspect before Cervantes, humanists objected to the claims of pure science before Aldous Huxley, and people were aware of famine before Swift.

  It was not the originality of the idea that made these satires popular. It was the manner of expression, the satiric method, that made them interesting and entertaining. Satires are read because they are aesthetically satisfying works of art, not because they are morally wholesome or ethically instructive. They are stimulating and refreshing because with commonsense briskness they brush away illusions and secondhand opinions. With spontaneous irreverence, satire rearranges perspectives, scrambles familiar objects into incongruous juxtaposition, and speaks in a personal idiom instead of abstract platitude.

   Satire exists because there is need for it. It has lived because readers appreciate a refreshing stimulus, an irreverent reminder that they live in a world of platitudinous thinking, cheap moralizing, and foolish philosophy. Satire serves to prod people into an awareness of truth, though rarely to any action on behalf of truth. Satire tends to remind people that much of what they see, hear, and read in popular media is sanctimonious, sentimental, and only partially true. Life resembles in only a slight degree the popular image of it.

Câu hỏi số 1:

What does the passage mainly discuss?

Câu hỏi số 2:

The last sentence of the first paragraph refers to _______as a result of reading satire.

Câu hỏi số 3:

Don Quixote, Brave New World, and A Modest Proposal are cited by the author as_______.

Câu hỏi số 4:

What satires fascinates readers is how _______.

Câu hỏi số 5:

Which of the following can be found in satiric literature?

Câu hỏi số 6:

According to the passage, there is a need for satire because people need to be__________.

Câu hỏi số 7:

The word “refreshing” in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to__________.

Câu hỏi số 8:

The word “sanctimonious” may be new to you. It most probably means “_______” in this context.

Câu hỏi số 9:

Readers of satiric literature will be most likely to___________.

Câu hỏi số 10:

The various purposes of satire include all of the following EXCEPT_____________

Bài 24:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 46 to 55.

    A rather surprising geographical feature of Antarctica is that a huge freshwater lake, one of the world’s largest and deepest, lies hidden there under four kilometers of ice. Now known as Lake Vostok, this huge body of water is located under the ice block that comprises Antarctica. The lake is able to exist in its unfrozen state beneath this block of ice because its waters are warmed by geothermal heat from the earth’s core. The thick glacier above Lake Vostok actually insulates it from the frigid temperatures on the surface.

   The lake was first discovered in the 1970s while a research team was conducting an aerial survey of the area. Radio waves from the survey equipment penetrated the ice and revealed a body of water of indeterminate size. It was not until much more recently that data collected by satellite made scientists aware of the tremendous size of the lake; the satellite-borne radar detected an extremely flat region where the ice remains level because it is floating on the water of the lake.

   The discovery of such a huge freshwater lake trapped under Antarcticais of interest to the scientific community because of the potential that the lake contains ancient microbes that have survived for thousands upon thousands of years, unaffected by factors such as nuclear fallout and elevated ultraviolet light that have affected organisms in more exposed areas. The downside of the discovery, however, lies in the difficulty of conducting research on the lake in such a harsh climate and in the problems associated with obtaining uncontaminated samples from the lake without actually exposing the lake to contamination. Scientists are looking for possible ways to accomplish this.

Câu hỏi số 1:

The word “hidden” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

Câu hỏi số 2:

What is true of LakeVostok?

Câu hỏi số 3:

Which of the following is closest in meaning to “frigid” in paragraph 1?

Câu hỏi số 4:

A ll of the following are true about the 1970 survey of AntarcticaEXCEPT that it ______

Câu hỏi số 5:

It can be inferred from the passage that the ice would not be flat if _______.

Câu hỏi số 6:

The word “microbes” in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?

Câu hỏi số 7:

LakeVostokis potentially important to scientists because it

Câu hỏi số 8:

The word “downside” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ______

Câu hỏi số 9:

The last paragraph suggests that scientists should be aware of

Câu hỏi số 10:

The purpose of the passage is to______

Bài 25:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. ( from 51 to 60).

     Although they are an inexpensive supplier of vitamins, minerals, and high-quality protein, eggs also contain a high level of blood cholesterol, one of the major causes of heart diseases. One egg yolk, in fact, contains a little more than two- thirds of the suggested daily cholesterol limit. This knowledge has driven egg sales to plummet in recent years, which in turn has brought about the development of several    alternatives   to  eating   regular  eggs.   One    alternative  is  to  eat  substitute  eggs.   These   eggs substitutes are not really eggs, but they look somewhat like eggs when they are cooked. They have the advantage   of     having   low   cholesterol   rates,   and   they   can   be   scrambled   or   used   in   banking.   One disadvantage, however, is that they are not good for frying, poaching, or boiling. A second alternative to regular eggs is a new type of egg, sometimes called “designer” eggs. These eggs are produced by hens that are fed low- flat diets consisting of ingredients such as canola oil, flax, and rice bran. In spite of their diet, however, these hens produce eggs that contain the same amount of cholesterol as regular eggs. Yet, the producers of these eggs claim that eating their eggs will not raise the blood cholesterol in humans. 

    Eggs producers claim that their product has been portrayed unfairly. They cite scientific studies to back up their claim. And, in fact, studies on the relationship between eggs and human cholesterol levels have brought mixed results. It may be that is not the type of eggs that is the main determinant of cholesterol but the person who is eating the eggs. Some people may be more sensitive to cholesterol derived from food than other people. In fact, there is evidence that certainly dietary fats stimulate the body’s production of blood cholesterol. Consequently, while it still makes sense to limit one’s intake of eggs, even designer eggs, it seems that doing this without regulating dietary fat will probably not help reduce the blood cholesterol level.

Câu hỏi số 1:

What is the main purpose of the passage?

Câu hỏi số 2:

According to the passage, which of the following is a cause of heart diseases?

Câu hỏi số 3:

What has been the cause for changes in the sale of eggs?

Câu hỏi số 4:

What is meant by the phrase “mixed results” ?

Câu hỏi số 5:

According to the author, which of the following may reduce blood cholesterol?

Câu hỏi số 6:

Which of the following could best replace the word “somewhat”?

Câu hỏi số 7:

According to  the  passage, one yolk contains approximately what fraction of  the suggested daily limit for human consumption of cholesterol?

Câu hỏi số 8:

The word “portrayed” could best be replaced by which of the following?

Câu hỏi số 9:

What is the meaning of “back up”?

Câu hỏi số 10:

According to the passage, egg substitutes cannot be used to make any of the following types of eggs EXCEPT.................... .

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