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Dạng bài Đọc hiểu lớp 12

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Social parasitism involves one species relying on another to raise its young. Among vertebrates, the best known social parasites are such birds as cuckoos and cowbirds; the female lay eggs in a nest belonging to another species and leaves it for the host to rear.

The dulotic species of ants, however, are the supreme social parasites. Consider, for example, the unusual behavior of ants belonging to the genus Polyergus. All species of this ant have lost the ability to care for themselves. The workers do not forage for food, feed their brood or queen, or even clean their own nest. To compensate for these deficits, Polyergus has become specialized at obtaining workers from the related genus Formica to do these chores.

In a raid, several thousand Polyergus workers will travel up to 500 feet in search of a Formica nest, penetrate it, drive off the queen and her workers, capture the pupal brood. and transport it back to their nest. The captured brood is then reared by the resident Formica workers until the developing pupae emerge to add to the Formica food and give it to colony members of both species. They also remove wastes and excavate new chambers as the population increases.

The true extent of the Polyergus ants’ dependence on the Formica becomes apparent when the worker population grows too large for the existing nest. Formica scouts locate a new nesting site, return to the mixed-species colony, and recruit additional Formica nest mates. During  a period that may last seven days, the Formica workers carry to the new nest all the Polyergus egas, larvae, and pupae, every Polyergus adult, and even the Polyergus queen.

Of the approximately 8,000 species of ants in the vvorld, all 5 species of Polyergus and some 200 species in other genera have evolved some degree of parasitic relationship with other ants.

Notes:

parasite (n): an animal or plant that lives on or in another animal or plant of a different type and feeds from it (động thực vật kí sinh).

parasitism (n): a type of  non-mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host (sự kí sinh).

vertebrate (n): an animal that has a spine (động vật có xương sống).

dulotic (adj):  of or about a practice of some ants, in which one species forces members of a different species to do the work of the colony

genus (n - plural genera): a group of animals or plants, more closely related than a family, but less similar than a species (giống, loại).

brood (n): a group of young animals all born at the same time (lứa, đoàn. bầy).

pupal (adj): of or about an insect in the stage of development which happens before it is completely developed (thuộc con nhộng).

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Social parasitism involves one species relying on another to raise its young. Among vertebrates, the best known social parasites are such birds as cuckoos and cowbirds; the female lay eggs in a nest belonging to another species and leaves it for the host to rear.

The dulotic species of ants, however, are the supreme social parasites. Consider, for example, the unusual behavior of ants belonging to the genus Polyergus. All species of this ant have lost the ability to care for themselves. The workers do not forage for food, feed their brood or queen, or even clean their own nest. To compensate for these deficits, Polyergus has become specialized at obtaining workers from the related genus Formica to do these chores.

In a raid, several thousand Polyergus workers will travel up to 500 feet in search of a Formica nest, penetrate it, drive off the queen and her workers, capture the pupal brood. and transport it back to their nest. The captured brood is then reared by the resident Formica workers until the developing pupae emerge to add to the Formica food and give it to colony members of both species. They also remove wastes and excavate new chambers as the population increases.

The true extent of the Polyergus ants’ dependence on the Formica becomes apparent when the worker population grows too large for the existing nest. Formica scouts locate a new nesting site, return to the mixed-species colony, and recruit additional Formica nest mates. During  a period that may last seven days, the Formica workers carry to the new nest all the Polyergus egas, larvae, and pupae, every Polyergus adult, and even the Polyergus queen.

Of the approximately 8,000 species of ants in the vvorld, all 5 species of Polyergus and some 200 species in other genera have evolved some degree of parasitic relationship with other ants.

Notes:

parasite (n): an animal or plant that lives on or in another animal or plant of a different type and feeds from it (động thực vật kí sinh).

parasitism (n): a type of  non-mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host (sự kí sinh).

vertebrate (n): an animal that has a spine (động vật có xương sống).

dulotic (adj):  of or about a practice of some ants, in which one species forces members of a different species to do the work of the colony

genus (n - plural genera): a group of animals or plants, more closely related than a family, but less similar than a species (giống, loại).

brood (n): a group of young animals all born at the same time (lứa, đoàn. bầy).

pupal (adj): of or about an insect in the stage of development which happens before it is completely developed (thuộc con nhộng).

Câu 1: Which of the following statements best represents the main idea of the passage?

A. Ants belonging to the genus Formica are incapable of performing certain tasks.

B. The genus Polyergus is quite similar to the genus Formica.

C. ants belonging to the genus Poiyergus have an unusual relationship with ants genus belonging to the Formica.

D. Polyergus ants frequently leave their nests to build new colonies.

Câu hỏi : 23263
  • Đáp án : C
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Câu 2: The word “raise” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to __________ .

A. rear

B. lift

C. collect

D. increase

Câu hỏi : 23264
  • Đáp án : A
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Câu 3: The author mentions “cuckoos and cowbirds” in paragraph 1 because they ________ .

A. share their nests with each other

B. are closely related species

C. aise the young of their birds 

D. are social parasites

Câu hỏi : 23265
  • Đáp án : D
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Câu 4: The word “it” in parasraph 1 refers to  ____________ .

A. species   

B. nest   

C. egg     

D. female

Câu hỏi : 23266
  • Đáp án : C
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Câu 5: What does the author mean by stating that “The dulotic species of ants ... are the supreme social parasites”?

A. The Polyergus are more highly developed than the Formica.

B. The Formica have developed specialized roles.

C. The Polyergus are heavily dependent on the Formica.

D. The Formica do not reproduce rapidly enough to care for themselves.

Câu hỏi : 23267
  • Đáp án : C
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Câu 6: Which of the following is a task that an ant of the genus Polyergus might do?

A. look for food   

B. raid another nest

C. care for the young 

D. clean its own nest

Câu hỏi : 23268
  • Đáp án : B
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Câu 7: The word “excavate” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to __________ .

A. find

B.  clean 

C. repair

D. dig

Câu hỏi : 23269
  • Đáp án : D
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Câu 8: The word “recruit” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to  __________ .

A. create

B. enlist 

C. endure

D. capture

Câu hỏi : 23270
  • Đáp án : B
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Câu 9: What happens when a mixed colony of Polyergus and Formica ants become too large?

A. The Polyergus workers enlarge the existing nest.

B. The captured Fonnica workers return to their original nest.

C. The Polyergus and the Formica build separate nests.

D. The Polycrgus and the Formica move to a new nest.

Câu hỏi : 23271
  • Đáp án : D
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Câu 10: According to the information in the passage, all of the following terms refer to ants belonging to the genus Formica EXCEPT the _________ .

A. dulotic species of ants 

B. captured brood

C. developing pupae      

D. worker population

Câu hỏi : 23272
  • Đáp án : A
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